by National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Scientific and Technical Information Office, For sale by the National Technical Information Service] in Washington, D.C, [Springfield, Va .
Written in English
|Statement||Russell W. Claus|
|Series||NASA technical paper -- 1463|
|Contributions||United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Scientific and Technical Information Office, Lewis Research Center|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||17 p. :|
|Number of Pages||17|
Pollutant Formation and Control in Combustion Chap. 3 We must determine the N atom concentration ifwe are to calculate the rate ofNO fOlmation. Since the activation energy for oxidation ofthe nitrogen atom is small and. for fuel-lean conditions, the reaction involves a major component of the gas. the free nitrogen atoms are consumed as rapidly as they are generated, establishing a quasiFile Size: 1MB. Request PDF | Combined effect of equivalence ratio and velocity gradients on flame stability and emission formation | Abstract Premixed flames have shown to behave differently while operating. An experimental study on the effect of swirl number on pollutant formation in propane bluff-body stabilized swirl diffusion flames Article in Physics of Fluids 31(5) May with 43 Reads. Pollutant Formation. and Control Pollutant Formation and Control All IC engines produce undesirable emissions as a result of combustion. The emissions of concern are unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen such as nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide (NOx), sulfur dioxide, and solid carbon particulates. These emissions pollute the environment and contribute to acid.
The additives complicate the math a bit, but the stoichiometric ratio is around 14 for many fuels. The equivalence ratio is just the actual air-to-fuel ratio divided by the theoretical. My understanding of the equivalence ratio is that if it is below 1, then there is too little air (compared to the stoichometric mix). The processes responsible for the production of pollutants in the cylinder of a conventional SI engine—i.e., a reciprocating carbureted four-stroke engine—are illustrated qualitatively in Fig. 1 which shows three important stages in the combustion process. In the first stage, the compressed fuel–air mixture is ignited by a spark, and a flame front propagates across the by: 1. Introduction. The emission of a variety of pollutant gases (e.g., nitrogen oxides, NO x, and volatile organic compounds, VOCs) into the troposphere may present a health risk either directly, or as a result of their can lead to a variety of secondary oxidised products, many of which are potentially more harmful than their by: The peak temperature in primary zone increases till equivalence ratio reaches ϕ= But at high equivalence ratio, i. e., ϕ≥, the peak temperature in primary zone decreases and that in dilution zone increases. Soot concentration increases at liner front end as well as in dilution zone when equivalence ratio increases from to Cited by: 7.
This chapter deals with pollutant formation and the consequential health effects. The major features of pollutants arising from biomass combustion are discussed. These include smoke, Unburned Hydrocarbons (UBH), volatiles, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), Nitrogen Oxides (NO x), other nitrogenous pollutants, sulphur, chlorine compounds Cited by: 1. POINT SOURCES OF POLLUTION: LOCAL EFFECTS AND IT’S CONTROL CONTENTS VOLUME I Point Sources of Pollution: Local Effects and Control 1 Chen Jining, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China Qian Yi, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China 1. Health and Environmental Effects of Primary Pollutants. Print. The pollutants that are emitted directly from a combustion process – or the products of combustion - are called “primary pollutants.” Carbon dioxide (CO 2) is not a pollutant that would harm our health but it is a proven greenhouse gas. It has an ability to absorb infrared. PAH and soot formation in premixed ﬂames of toluene, toluene/n-heptane, and n-heptane were investigated by Westmoreland et al. . The entire stream of combustion products was collected by a glass hood and ﬂame samples were taken using glass ﬁlter and XAD-2 poly-meric resin. They studied a heptane ﬂame at equivalence ratio of